Norwood adolphe porche death record louisiana
The pill comes following research on the tumour growth from Cancer Research UK. Second, was the gas pedal stuck figuratively? Third, were the brakes not working? Fourth, was he asleep? Fifth, was it customary to bring his hurtling train from mph to a smooth stop in two miles at the next station?
Sixth, can a person familiar with the line have any exculpatory excuse? Even once an index adds a stock,some ETFs, such as First Trust, wait until their fund'squarterly rebalancing period, which can sometimes be monthslater. Five years later, iPhone sales alone were greater than Microsoft's overall revenue. We want our economy to function," said Raymond Lafontaine, the owner of an excavation and pavement company that has workers, making it one of the town's largest employers. No longer are you required to take action with a Web service to trigger an action, but you can now use local apps on your device to trigger a long list of actions.
But theOakmark fund is not your typical percent stocks, percentbond mix. The fund can invest up to 35 percent of its assets innon-U. People are already looking forward to presidential elections," said Larry Sabato, director of the University of Virginia Center for Politics. It's the closest to the national average in terms of the vote in and , and it has implications for ,". After a bye week, the 49ers will host the Carolina Panthers on Nov. The mainstream Republicans and Democrats, they need to do more. So I blame them all. Moscow built Iran's first nuclear power station and has supplied it with anti-aircraft defenses.
We are continuing our site selection assessment and will continue to keep local communities fully informed and engage with them on our plans as they develop. It has also been holding on to big gainers such Pandora Media Inc and Nu Skin Enterprises Inc, which have seen their shares double since the start of the year.
Capitol in Washington, September 28, Two weeks ago the Federal Reserve said it was "reviewing" a decision that allowed commercial banks to trade in physical commodity markets. The Pentagon says it can't immediately pay for families to travel to Dover Air Force Base to witness the return of their loved ones' remains.
The Pentagon is also unable to promptly reimburse burial expenses. He cancelled visits to Malaysia and thePhilippines earlier this week because of his budget struggle inthe U. Congress and said late on Thursday he would not attendthe regional summits in Indonesia and Brunei. GVT has expandedrapidly in markets not dominated by large phone companies,allowing it to charge slightly higher rates for Internetservices. The first phased is expected to be completed next year. Older people know how to get the best from a library and will find their place here. But Birmingham is a young city. A quarter of people here are under 25, and there are 50, students.
Montana, the fourth largest state in the USA and an area larger than Japan, is known for its ranches, mountains and wilderness. The rest of the day the team might get mentioned in a sports update. Yankees fans go elsewhere, like FAN or Activists on both sides say it would be the first municipal ban on abortion, and possibly a template for similar actions in other cities around the United States.
As food service directors are revamping the menus to make the food healthier, they are also making it more appealing and the kids like the food better. Doing the right things in life are more important than football. I love the game very much. I love my teammates, but this is the right thing for me to do. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The plan identifies 10 priorities, including treating children preventively if family members already have TB, and training health workers to spot the disease in kids. It says that stopping children from dying of TB is "within our grasp.
He is with a 2. Miraculously, six weeks later Lauda was back behind the wheel wearing a specially adapted helmet to prevent too much discomfort and racing in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, where he finished fourth. This extraordinary result took the title fight to a final race decider at a rain-lashed circuit in Fuji, Japan. The Daily News could not immediately confirm that report.
He declined to identifythe company, which his firm has invested in. In a city where police, uniformed military and X-ray machines are everywhere in the wake of Sept. A time for rest, a warm glow, and also for new discoveries. At some plants, as many as 69 percent of the trailers arriving on site were contaminated with PEDv.
In a V60 it's capable of mph, mph in 6sec, The current six-pot isn't much more powerful, but has more torque. It tops out at mph, has the same mph acceleration, but slurps at a dipsomanic rate of Thank you for your thoughts and well wishes. Washington broke off diplomatic relations with Iran in because of the U. Embassy hostage crisis. Fifty-two Americans were held hostage for days.
The bank did not admit wrongdoing in agreeing to settle. Women saunter out of newsagents clutching Hello! But Anthony Weiner's private behavior shows the flip side of having no shame: An ability to think he can avoid the consequences of social judgment entirely. It wouldn't bother me if Weiner continued to sext after his resignation so long as he admitted that, to him, such behavior was not immoral, not wrong, and not a violation of whatever boundaries he and Huma Abedin have set for their marriage.
Also, discreet. He had to be discreet. State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki said Friday the United States disapproved of Russia facilitating what she called a "propaganda platform" for Snowden, "despite the government's declarations of Russia's neutrality with respect to Mr. Kenneth Menges,Jr. Forstmann Little tried to sell 24 Hour Fitnesslast year but the process has since stalled. Analysts differ in what they consider to benormal seasonal variations in demand.
But new coach Alain Vigneault, who is out to make a good first impression in New York, would not accede to a plan this quickly if he were uncomfortable with the circumstances. Some of the group's leaders have been arrested or are wanted and their assets frozen in one of the toughest crackdowns it has ever faced. Itdoesn't make sense in the new Temasek," said a source familiarwith Temasek's investment policy. S bank Citi also kept a longer-termpositive view on the UK stock market.
Citi maintained itsend target for the FTSE at 7, points but raised itsend target to 8, points. It's not sure how many employees they will be sending to Sochi. In past Olympics, some 3, people worked during the games for NBC, although some of them were not in the host country. And we should try to help them go if we can. But the truth is, the cold truth is there's often little we can do. And the only thing we can do to protect ourselves against the mentally ill is to be very alert and aware that this problem is getting worse. They don't qualify for a subsidy.
Bernanke called for maintaining stimulus. And I like to think that the wealthy are rational and know that it's in the best interest of everyone to reverse the trends. Six years is an eternity in the life of a young person. I note that after more than three years as Chancellor, Mr Osborne has done nothing to change that model. Prashant Ruia has "an indirect interest" in The Post reports that Snowden was copying documents and preparing to leak them as the agency began one of its sweeps. Investment bankingfees were up 85 percent from a year ago.
Guile, surprise and stealth carried the day against countries that poured guns, aircraft and warships into the region. Live television too, and that means the whole of Britain will be able to judge whether we have been playing without luck or we deserve to be bottom of the First Division. But the Orioles, who had had trouble scoring recently, chipped away at Sabathia and rode Chris Tillman , who allowed two runs and four hits in seven-plus innings, at one point retiring 14 straight.
Turchin says elites get polarized when too many ambitious and well-prepared people vie for control of society's resources. It's easy to see this in other cultures: for example in Saudi Arabia, where the high birth rate among the ruling family is outstripping that country's vast oil wealth.
It's harder to see the root cause here at home. A former ice-skating starlet, she has also designed competition costumes for figure-skating stars like Nancy Kerrigan and Michelle Kwan. The FISA amendments allow the government to obtain from a secret court broad, yearlong intercept orders, which raises the prospect that phone calls and emails between those foreign targets and innocent Americans in this country would be swept under the umbrella of surveillance.
Left wing Benoit Pouliot made two second period mistakes that led directly to Anaheim goals. But he lost many of his closest allies after allegations of hidden wealth were revealed in by a U. S Senate committee investigating money laundering by the Riggs Bank of Washington. Other accounts were later discovered in Europe and the Caribbean. Now it's a matter of improving that skill level to compete better than we have. Name-dropped on sitcoms, by Bob Hope at the Oscars and Johnny Carson on late night, and discussed on the evening news, the movie brought middle-class couples to smut houses and sparked protests against porn.
That is why I think nations, cities, communities and companies will recognise the importance of these findings and will increase the urgency and scale of the emissions reductions that they are planning to undertake. It was so simple. But I was looking upfield. Many in Silicon Valley like to discuss the lore of the "10x"engineer, who is a person so talented that he or she does thework of 10 merely competent engineers. In previous years we'd had to take a tiny smoke-filled plane from Athens to Skiathos before taking the boat 3km east, past Skopelos. I still have recurring nightmares of those journeys, in which I am chainsmoking Salem menthols and weeping into my friend's lap while that tiny ball of rusted metal thrashes through the sky.
Its current system is based around HarvardX, an on-campus initiative that university spokesperson Michael Rutter said helps professors deliver online courses. Two faculty committees govern it: one to organize classes and the other to research the effectiveness of online-learning techniques.
One of the feedback loops that the Arctic provides the climate is a cover of white, reflective ice. While the white ice absorbs very little heat from the sun, instead reflecting it back, an ice-free Arctic ocean absorbs much more energy, speeding up the polar warming. Over 80 percent of stocks traded on the NewYork Stock Exchange rose. Each dog is taught to obey over 40 assistance commands that will improve the life of their human. This however, is not the end of the training for the assistance dogs.
Once they are deemed proficient enough to be a companion animal they are paired with their new owner whom they will provide assistance for.
1960 - Louisiana State University
The new owner and his or her new best friend attend a two week training session together and finally a graduation ceremony for the pup. The two are then allowed to go home and begin their lives together as a team. But wanting to do something should not be pushing this government to make the terrible decision to go ahead with this cull, which could actually magnify the TB problem. The nascent video service pioneered the original video format that enables mobile users to shoot and share short video clips. The GIF-like files could even be played on repeats, making this app very popular and attractive to many users.
We meet him in the bar and Terfel orders a couple of bottles of red wine and gently teases the waiter. He gave no details of the proposals. The consumer economy is showing more signs of flashing green. Consumer confidence has reached a five-year high. Small-business confidence might also indicate further signs of improvement Tuesday when the National Federation of Independent Business releases its small-business optimism index.
But after seeing blown calls on almost a nightly basis, and as the voices within the game have yelled louder for more replay, Selig and baseball's owners have moved closer to a consensus on the subject. The suit further argues that state would be "indoctrinating" impressionable students in violation of the First Amendment to the U. Constitution's protections for religious freedom. The oil industry heralds the technique as a way to boost domestic oil and gas production; opponents contend it is unsafe and endangers underground drinking-water supplies.
He argued for rules to punish companies that exploit immigrant labor, both to protect immigrants and prevent companies that stuck to the rules from being priced out of the market. But the foundation that runs the animal parks said Saturday it is trying to keep them operating. Now what I wanted to do - I wanted to get into my head as an actress - was to bring that to this time period. Eliot Spitzer who spoke on condition of anonymity, erroneously reported that Spitzer was speaking only to The New York Times about a planned run for New York City comptroller.
Spitzer also spoke to other publications. Yet it pops back into mind when one looks at reports of chemical weapons use in Syria, and more broadly, what all the various players and observers want. As I challenge my students to ask, what are the motives? Then, what do you do to achieve your goal? Obama has struggled for support in Congress for the plan. You can add as many icons as you'd like to a folder.
But iOS 7 only displays nine of them at one time. To see another screen of icons in a folder you have to scroll to the right, which almost defeats the purpose of having a single folder in the first place. He said debt ceiling talks will include a path forward on tax reform and approval of the Keystone XL pipeline. Justice Department would challenge a new voter identification law in Texas and previously suggested the department was closely watching developments in North Carolina and in other states.
It takes 4, hours for the coachbuilders at Carrozzeria Touring to handcraft the Disco Volante's body which has been designed specifically to be 'insensitive to wind'. We think this is Italian for 'aerodynamic'. Meaning that if you're a relatively young person, you might prepare yourself to expect an ice-free Arctic summer in your lifetime. I had to beg for food from other workers. In our eyes, we believe that the issue should be glorifying the victims who lost their lives that day and not the terrorist," the store wrote. Clearly, I never got a part in that movie.
But I did get to keep the shirt. Commodities trading is acapital-intensive business, requiring traders to put up millionsof dollars at time in margin to secure trades. Researchers found that persons who had a history of Colon Cancer had higher risk of getting cancers of small intestine, lung, kidney, stomach, bladder and endometrial later in their life. With patrons cutting back since the crisis struck some five years ago, more than 1, have gone under. Provisions for badloans and contingencies rose 27 percent to 5.
Open champ, also made a big charge. He had one more birdie shot at the eighth, but missed a footer. Now, nutrition data is generally determined by a lab test and it's impossible to be completely consistent. Tomatoes, peas, mandarins, whatever, are not grown in a lab and vary through the year and even from plant to plant. Even so, the variation was surprising.
The scientists suspect they are abrasive "micro beads" used in personal care products such as facial and body washes and toothpaste. So we have come a long way. But billboards that the City of Detroit commissioned read that the election would take place on September 2. But only fleetingly, before being replaced with sheer incredulity at what the narrative becomes. The former has real potential, smothered by the complete incongruence of the latter. From this point on, says Rubin, "trusting Turkish officials with intelligence would be about as wise as renewing Edward Snowden's security clearance.
We use two types of cookies:. With bel canto you have to work so hard, be so sensitive to the music and understand all the musical forms. The staging should never fight the music, but help it to flow effortlessly. I got a little agitated at your first note saying that gamers think Wii U is dead. I for one think it will be just like the 3DS, slow, but eventually it will be out there.
That, however, is a good symptom. I suppose. Our airports are amongst the most peripheral in the UK, serving parts of Scotland where air is the only practical form of long-distance travel. So, it is vital that we redouble our efforts to ensure these communities remain connected. Starting pitcher Clay Buchholz's best effort, a translucently thin group of brown patches on his face, drew smirks from some Red Sox on Tuesday. He was a great guy for his era but times have changed and a new leadership is needed.
Jeremy Guthrie neatly handled a nemesis and a long rain delay to pitch into the seventh inning. He held the Yankees to just three hits over six innings that included a minute delay for a sun shower-hailstorm in the fourth. He started seven of the last 10 regular-season games and both playoff games at cornerback.
This passage follows weeks of negotiation and increasing pressure from the White House. Meanwhile, Republicans in both chambers criticized Senate Democrats for slowing the process. I feel tremendous. From cupping to vamp SMI will leverage its paid-up capital to a maximum of 3x equity. In addition as the sole shareholder, the MOF has the authority to approve the company's budget and long-term plans, to appoint and dismiss members of both boards, to approve SMI's annual report and ratify the Board of Commissioner's supervisory report. That country'scentral bank signalled a hike in the second quarter of Its leaders were repeatedly outmanoeuvred by the prime minister, and the party declined to the point where it split, its two wings winning just two seats each in Unless you tell it not to, apps you use on the phone will automatically appear on the Nexus 7, so you can switch from device to device seamlessly.
When you are signed in, bookmarks will also transfer over Google's Chrome Web browser, as will favorite places on Google Maps. Food has become more expensive to bring home and the year-old and his family are now just eking by. There were no tears, but the six straight losses and 15 interceptions to open the season have clearly gotten to him. He seems to go out of his way not to let anybody see how the game affects him emotionally, but his failures this season have become a huge burden to carry around and he was hiding his feelings no more.
Looks good. Whatever, the move was definitely swallowed and celebrated by those who see it more as a noble gesture than PR spin. The lastsignificant delay in issuing them was in September , whenthey were delayed by two days in the aftermath of the September11 attacks on New York and Washington, according to therecollections of two USDA officials. The trouble was on a far lower scale than the disturbances that broke out following the ban on the return feeder parade from central Belfast to the Upper Crumlin Road via the nationalist Ardoyne district.
Officials at both Coal India and at the Coal Ministry said the"coal banking" concept was impractical. State Department said on Thursday American embassies that would normally be open this Sunday - including those in Abu Dhabi, Baghdad and Cairo - would be closed that day because of unspecified security concerns. Embassy in Islamabad, Meghan Gregonis, said, "We received information regarding a threat to the consulate.
As a precautionary measure, we are undertaking a drawdown of all except emergency personnel. Technology companies that have earned billions in a relatively few years could well afford to become backers of invaluable journalism that is one of the mainstays of their industry. Someone looking to enroll in a Medicare Advantage plan in Queens would find 92 options for , up from 88 this year, according to Avalere Health. And at that point, he pulled my hand closer to him and he reached over to kiss me.
I turned my head at that moment and on the side of my face, I got a very wet, saliva-filled kiss including feeling his tongue on my cheek. The appearance of the "Promotions" folder is part of this strategy to sideline competitors. Reyburn, threatened in the eighth against Cody Allen. Ramirez reached on a fielding error by Allen with one out. Ramirez's attempt to steal second appeared to be unsuccessful -- except through the eyes of Reyburn.
We have succeeded despite the challenging year as the children and teachers have worked together. The canal moves massive amounts of flood water and the breach contributed to flooding not only in Lakeview but a significant part of uptown New Orleans, including the area around a hospital where dozens of patients died. My Home went belly up although the portfolio ended up comfortably in the black. Essenden, a ten pin bowling group, is my last recruit, arriving late last year. It featured earlier as the Georgica bowling alleys and snooker halls business and was also a money-maker.
He said that police had used teargas to try to break up the fighting. Ronaldo is a far more complete player. Bale will still be important. He has time to settle in. It will make Real Madrid stronger, even more powerful. But if for whatever reason Bale came and Ronaldo would leave it would make Real Madrid weaker. My driver, Prabath, was a Kandyan himself and, being stocky, affable and occasionally ferocious, might easily have tumbled from the pages of Knox.
It also meant he knew all the back-roads, and our journey soon became pleasingly medieval. We came across tinkers, a bullock cart race, an ambalam or dosshouse, circa and a man washing his elephant in the Kelani Ganga. But to respond to the point you were quoting- forget about negotiating amendments, and instead negotiate laws.. I can think of some other things, too. Haribo said his shares in the company would be placed in a private foundation to ensure its independence.
But that would be thoroughly selfish. Germany is also opposed to any hasty agreement thatwould leave it indirectly on the hook for helping weakercountries address the problems of their banks. Furthermore, intra-area variation in spending can be large -- even down to the hospital, single-specialty group practice, and individual physician.
The charges were announced after an month investigation by state and federal agencies. And I've had plenty of surgeries over the course of my career, starting in '94, when I was in college. So it's the nature of what we do as an athlete. I try to do a lot of preventative things, but the nature of it is that we are subjecting our bodies to things that probably it wasn't meant to do.
It is unlikely to issue any updates until its fiscal guidance on January , it said. I think he's a mediocre Congressman who has no legislative record. And the only time he makes national press is when he comes out and says something offensive about the undocumented or Hispanics," Navarro added. Resistance wasput at At 42 years old, Charlie Sheen's ex-wife still boasts one of the best bikini bods by the pool.
The mom of three flaunted her winning physique as she worked on her tan at the Beverly Hills Hotel. They try to give the impression its being forced upon them. I wonder what an independent pay review body would recommend for the rest of us , particularly in the private sector, having considered the extra effort having to be made for us just to stay in a job?
A generation ago, Westminster gave Scotland the poll tax. This generation of Tory-led government has given us the Bedroom Tax, which we will scrap with independence. The Bedroom Tax is only one element of the punitive welfare cuts that are affecting people the length and breadth of Scotland, including cuts to child tax and working credits that are hitting families hard. The husband could not be a secondary name on the account because of his age. He was then In the post-World War II era, Treasuries and the greenback have -- for better and for worse -- served as the foundation of the global financial system.
A default would shatter the faith on which that system relies. He was arrested after Texas state troopers found him lying naked in the road near his crashed car almost a year ago. He pleaded guilty to drunken driving and was sentenced to two years probation and ordered to serve 30 days at an in-patient alcohol treatment facility. He became president andCOO in The movingaverage represents a measure of the near-term trend in themarket and often investors will buy in clusters at such levels.
It added that if all nine of its directornominees were to be elected, it would invite three current Vivusdirectors to join the new board. They also had "semi-regular"Sunday evening calls and in-person conversations" to appriseCohen of their best trading ideas. Others have their bags or backpacks searched, and sometimes police conduct full pat-downs. Only 10 per cent of all stops result in arrest, and a weapon is recovered a small fraction of the time. They said driving further to obtain an abortion isn't an undue burden. The company surprised investors by reportingstronger-than-expected quarterly profits and subscriber growthon Monday, sending its shares soaring.
I'm not really sure of the significance. The knee was pretty bad. I don't want to sound like some emergency situation, because I don't know that. But we felt like the best thing to do would be to get him out of there and hopefully be ready to play two days from now in Boston. The driver did, however, apparently replace the windshield of the car before returning to the scene. Tennis is one of the few where Sky has been largely unable to do so; athletics is another, perhaps.
The Duchess of Cambridge yesterday gave birth to a boy at The baby, as yet unnamed, is third in line to the throne and becomes the Prince of Cambridge. But"we're getting to yellow" in facing a major disruption fromequipment failure that could foul thousands of flights,particularly if there was bad weather.
Yellow indicates cautionand is not based on a risk scale used by aviation regulators. Now, the U. Bankswere required to provide homeowners with a single representativewho would review their loan files and manage the process ofseeking a modification, for example. They are buoyinga growing high-end goods market, splashing out on everythingfrom expensive lingerie to home decor.
If conditions do not allow application on July 31, , the following evening will serve as the back-up spray date. Assad blamed rebels battling to overthrow him, saying it made no sense for his forces to use chemical weapons when they were gaining the upper hand and while U. Both are the worst in history.
During , the federal government borrowed 30 percent of what it spent. How many families and businesses can avoid bankruptcy if, year after year, 30 percent of their spending is borrowed money? Not many, and not for long. Yet that is America. She also delivered 8, pages containing tens of thousands of signatures from online petitions calling for the judge's ouster.
The site touts a clubhouse, atrium and poolside bar, and says the resort is on a secluded acre lake. The fast-spinning door between the NSA and industry reflects that. Regulators in Britain have been pushing hard for UKbanks to meet this target as soon as they can. The SEC's new chairman, Mary Jo White, has declared war on "cop-out settlements", saying that defendants in many cases will no longer be allowed to walk away without either admitting or denying wrongdoing.
It actively combs through press reports to see which trophy scalps it can claim. And once it finds them, it is pursuing more alleged wrongdoers all the way to trial. The former would have been brief, easily contained and would have involved no destruction of property. Oktoberfest-goers have continued to spend more per capita, despite hikes in the price of, well, everything.
He's young, has great velocity, has good command of his pitches and that makes him attractive to any team," Cubs manager Dale Sveum said. We hope the players we get will make us a better team, and in the future, we can be the team who purses a player like Garza. It carries. But I spun it. That 17th hole has little ridges on it.
I happened to catch it on a slight upslope. She was stunned by the results, and a little scared: She no longer showed a learning disability. That meant no more extended time on tests, which left her fearful for her upcoming GRE exams. But she was accepted into a graduate program in higher education administration and is now pursuing an advanced degree. Ye Mengyuan and Wang Linjia, the two teenagers who died on Saturday, were sitting in the back of the plane, which hit the seawall and suffered the most damage.
Our hearts go out to all our neighbors, friends, and 'family' that had to witness the same. Thankfully, no lives were lost and nobody suffered serious injury. He had to play too many minutes during the regular season when Raymond Felton got hurt, just because Woodson did not have anybody else to run his basketball team, and it caught up with him in April and May. In the August attack, both Russian and Chinese officials were almost immediately on site, as they both maintain consulates in Syria. What they found led them to believe the rebels were responsible for this latest attack as well.
In fact, captured rebels have admitted as such, with the specific aim of greater US military involvement. Meanwhile, Washington would have you believe Assad would first invite UN inspectors into Syria to show he had nothing to hide and then gas his own people the same day inspector arrived in country. Which explanation sounds more plausible?
Which group has more to gain, and less to lose, via Sarin attacks. And finally, what do the US and UN plan to do when this latest atrocity is traced back to those same Al-Qaeda-backed rebels? International Trade Commission data show. Richard said something was wrong. He complained about shoulder pain. Then J. Richard ended up having a stroke and never throwing again in the major leagues. You have to take him for his word. There are over families of wounded veterans in building The astroleger told him to wait for seven and a half years.
Nothing will come out of the discussion. We will be back in square one. They find themselves pitched into a local popularity contest. She denies the charges. However, financial markets believed that Yellen wouldbe slightly more likely to keep the Fed's easy money policies inplace for longer than Summers. Wayne Routledge did the damage with two first-half goals, while Michu, Wilfried Bony and Alejandro Pozuelo also scored. Like Spurs, they can rest easy ahead of the second legs. The park is located in a densely populated and affluent neighborhood. The dealdoes not include its fibre infrastructure or customers on thebusiness side.
Attorney Preet Bharara in the Southern District of New York, have sought to dust off the rarely used law and bring cases against banks accused of fraud.
Because the enemy of curiosity is dogma. Felt that it came out like I wanted it to. Obviously it was a little too high. It was unfortunate. Felt like we were about to go drive and win the game and I make a mistake. Lawrence C. Ferguson H. Lawson Wm. Hoffpauir, N. Hoffpauir, Curtis. Prevost, Joseph R. Quave, Percy L. Price M. Brown J. Past Masters J. Tilley, C. Squyres, Carlos Squyr. King, Carey Kirkland, W. Temple, Robert Thomas, Charlie P. Pennison, Talbot J. Pepper, Charles. French, J.
Frizzell, Connie. Hickman, Jack Hiekman, Robert R. Henderson M. Hamilton Jame. Specht, George Stagg, L. Daniel, Sumpter J. Davis, Duncan D. Allen, B. Andrews, S. Varnado, Melvin L. Watts, Berlin Wa. Landry, Whybra J. Lavigne, B. Allemond, Ivy Jos. Berard, Dominic. Goins, Raymond Gore, William I. Oldham, Harold W. Rountree, W. Scoggins, James K. Strother, Marvin. Smith, Sr. Turner, Herbert J. Vaucharie, Charl. Little, Gus, Jr. Lowery, Leo L.
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Brady, Warren P. The stamp of this atelier may also be seen in Nevers in corbel sculpture of the chapel of Saint-Michel of the Benedictine convent of Notre-Dame de Nevers. Analysis of the iconography of the Saint-Sauveur sculpture, which included a remarkable sculpted 'bestiary' on the nave capitals and a particularly pointed emphasis on the powers of the apostle Peter in sculpture from the crossing and transept portal, gives more specific indication of the background and intentions of the Cluniac patrons of the sculpted decorations of Saint-Sauveur.
As well, it may pinpoint the historical moment of the conception of the sculpture to the years around The collection of fragments from Saint-Sauveur emerges as the creation of an atelier working in an old and rich Romanesque idiom but touched also by a newer aesthetic and by intellectual concerns which scholars commonly associate with early Gothic works. Indeed, the Saint-Sauveur sculpture was soon to be followed in Nevers itself by works closely related to the dramatic contemporary innovations in the sculpture of the Ile-de-France.
Surveys European Medieval illuminated manuscripts 11thth cs. The author discusses the possible sources illustrated bestiaries of the th centuries in studies of animals by Leonardo da Vinci. In addition to specific works that the artist could have consulted in the ducal library of Pavie, the tradition of the international Gothic style, with its Arab components, is described as the source of inspiration of Leonardo da Vinci. One such practice, the criminal prosecution and execution of animals, may illustrate the interaction of various legal levels and cultural influences.
On the one hand, they were definitely not judicial folklore: the sentences were passed and executed in properly constituted courts of law by fully qualified magistrates, according to generally accepted laws. On the other hand, there is no question that they were an integral part of customary law and owed their continued existence partially to popular traditions and influences. Following the phenomenon through the warp and woof of legal history, from court-house to university and from customals to the gallows across centuries of changing perceptions of nature, law and justice, one might attempt an interpretation of continental European law as practised within its specific cultural context.
Filling a gap in this significant field of Renaissance culture, in general, and its art, in particular, this book demonstrates the continuity and tenacity of medieval animal interpretations and symbolism, disguised under the veil of genre, religious or mythological narrative and scientific naturalism. An extensive introduction, dealing with relevant medieval and early Renaissance sources, is followed by a series of case studies that illustrate ways in which Renaissance artists revived conventional animal imagery in unprecedented contexts, investing them with new meanings, on a social, political, ethical, religious or psychological level, often by applying exegetical methodology in creating multiple semantic and iconographic levels.
A brief article comparing animal images carved on British churches with similar images found in bestiary manuscripts. The question will naturally occur: are these scultures, or paintinge, mere grotesque creations of the artist's fancy, or have they rather some meaning which patient investigation will discover for us?
This link has now been found in the natural history books of the Middle Ages, which were in more common circulation than any other book, save, of course, the Bible. Such books are usually called Bestiaries. They are to be found in every great library Few books have entered more than the Bestiaries into the common life of European nations. Hence we may understand that the sculptors who beautified our churches were not slow to make use of such familiar material.
All photographs are fully annotated as to location, date and subject. On the carved misericords in choir stalls, the physician holding the matula was commonly represented as an ape, with the allegorical implications of foolishness, vanity and even lechery. The ape uroscopist was frequently shown with his friend the fox, an animal that was often used to satirise the less-than-perfect cleric, and this association may reflect the close ties between the medical and clerical professions in the medieval period.
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Discusses the depiction and description of the si-ra-nas or swan-phoenix in manuscripts of the Kita-b t. Cook focuses on the word Fastitocalon as a name for the whale, and compares it to the name Aspidocalon. Much of the article consists of quotations in German, Greek and Latin. Includes the Old English Physiologus , text and prose translation by A. Cook, verse translation by J. Reprint of contributions originally published as Yale studies in English, v.
Includes a reproduction of the original title page of each contribution. Text and prose translation by Albert Stanburrough Cook. Verse translation by James Hall Pitman. Neither translation is literal; the verse translation in particular takes liberties with the OE text.
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Editor's preface dated: March 27, The last is a mere fragment. The entire bibliography is available as a web page or a PDF file. Consists of an alphabetic list of animals, with dictionary-style entries; includes many references to the bestiary. A study of two fish as magical objects: the echineis , said to have the power to hold back ships; and the torpedo , able to stun at a distance.
The author cites ancient authorities Pliny, Aristotle, Galen, and others to explore the origins of the legends, and looks at the effects of the scientific revolution on the belief in them. There has been no unanimous decision. The answer to the complex question of the cycle seems to lie in the identification of the bird in the third poem. If the writer selected the bird that succeeds the Whale , the longer-cycle theory is left with argument; if he mechanically followed his source and took the next member, the longer-cycle theory is given substantial credence.
The matter of choice is crucial. It was written in the middle of the XIIth century by Hugues of Fouilloy, then prior of a community of Augustinian regular canons. In his dedication and his prologue, Hugues states that he conceived the iconographic program of his treaty so as to make it accessible to the illiterates illiterati , which places it in the tradition of the "picture as literature of the illiterates" concept. The iconographic program of the Aviarium is nothing less than the equivalent to a text for the religious illiterates who must practise the lectio divina in spite of their difficulty to read scriptures.
Its illustrations follow the tradition of visual exegesis, which goes back to the Carolingian period but appears to have been systematized in the XIIth century - especially by the school of Saint-Victor - in this period of emergence of new scholastic exegesis methods. The choice of animal symbolism, and of birds in particular, is first motivated by the fact that Hugues adresses a religious audience, traditionnaly represented by birds in Christian thought, and, secondly, because of the long tradition of the use of bestiaries as teaching manuals in medieval scolae, which also sheds light on the didactic approach of such books.
Cest le plus important de tous les groupes dattributions de lAviaire. Notes on the De avibus of Hugo de Folieto , including the textural tradition and the pace of the text in bestiaries. By magic I mean the other realm of meaning which lies between man and nature, that world of mystery and enchantment that we first recognize as children in fairy tales. Such creatures as the unicorn are not purposeless fantasies.
They all have some special meaning. They are all cultural artefacts, as much so as the flint knife of the early shaman, or the space-probe of the modern scientist. They are 'man-made' in a very special sense. The natural history of these magical creatures -- and I emphasise that this book is about their natural history only -- is bound up with man's experience of animals, wild and domestic, through the centuries.
In the In the second part of the book I have collected together some of the fabulous animals of Western man over a long period of time. Though most of this book deals with the natural history of fabulous beasts, the last part takes a brief look at the magical dimensions of man's experience and knowledge of these animals. The description includes a list of the 48 beasts found in the manuscript. The edition is accompanied by four introductory chapters which present in order: a brief overview of the bestiary tradition and the works of Philippe de Thaon, an analysis of the three manuscripts containing the Bestiaire , an explanation of the criteria for edition and an examination of the cycle of miniatures conceived to accompany this work.
Appendices include: notes indicating Philippe's sources, an index of proper names, a thematic index of beasts, birds and stones mentioned in the bestiary and a glossary. Perhaps no sight has made a stronger appeal to the imagination than an enormous fish, whose vast bulk lay stretched out on the surface of the sea, or who opened his huge jaws to devour smaller creatures.
According as the lines of travel moved to the east or to the west and north, he is pictured, now off the coast of India or among the islands of the Southern Pacific, now on the shores of the Baltic; his dimensions and habits are variously described; but always he is an object of terror, and always he lends himself to stories of adventure and romance. In classical Greek mythology it was a nondescript bird but in the medieval bestiaries it became pure white.
These appear to be the first use of this medically significant bird in modern heraldry. An extensive survey of bench-end wood carvingin English churches. The are some animal references. For, in the traditional view, the imagination of the Physiologus has its base precisely not in reality but in embarrassing flights of zoological fancy. In a similar vein, B. Perry remarked that the Physiologus was written by 'a simple man for simple people. These scholars obviously have a clear and distinct idea about what constitutes the 'reality' to which the Physiologus was so woefully unresponsive.
It is the reality of Aristotelian scientific observation, which catalogues, classifies, orders, and arranges the natural world, placing its bewildering superabundance of forms into a manageable system. From this biological perspective, a document like the Physiologus has no art. It is this other reality that I would like to explore in this essay. Though much valuable work has been done on various individual questions connected with the Bestiary, one cannot escape the suspicion that the more general aspects of interpretation have been unwarrantably simplified.
The naturally close relations between symbolism and scriptural interpretation are even closer with regard to the Bestiary, for much of this strange lore derives from Biblical accounts of creation. It is quite true, and scarcely a matter for wonder, that the perception of meaning, the perception of the connection of the isolated fact with more cosmic problems, held a higher place in the hierarchy of values than did the observance of single facts.
But it is not true that this kind of subordination implied any contempt for the facts, as such. John the Baptist John Mirk describes the manner of celebrating the vigil, a description of obvious value to the historian of folk-custom and yet, apparently, little noted. But whereas Beleth is content to explain that a fire made of bones was especially popular as a remedy against the pestilential dragon in the time of St.
John and that the people annually light similar fires to commemorate the historical fact, Mirk interweaves into his explanation of the custom the old story of Alexander's stratagem against elephants. But what has all this to do with the story of the elephants? Is Mirk merely implying that the same wise clerks who knew the natural history of the elephant were also up on their dragon lore? Clarity is conspicuously absent from the explanation given by Mirk, but an examination of Bestiary beliefs reveals that there is good reason for connecting the stories of the elephant and of the dragon.
One of the details of the Greek Physiologus involves the hostility existing between the dragon and the elephant. Includes an modern English translation of the Old English Physiologus panther and whale , plus a brief commentary. The collection is particularly strong in items concerning horses, such as riding, hunting, breeding, and racing. Among the most important works is the English Helmingham Herbal and Bestiary of ca. Edition of a text on methods for hunting deer, boar, wolves, foxes, bear, otter, birds, hare, and even unicorns.
Curley surveys the use of animal symbolism, including some from the bestiary, in the development of the most enduring of medieval legends, that of King Arthur. Commentary on Bertilak's "beaver-hued" beard in fit 2 of Gawain and the Green Night in relation to the allegory of the beaver in the bestiaries, the Physiologus , Solinus, Pliny , and others.
Curley's intrduction places Physiologus within its intellectual and historical framework. He also provides a selected bibliography and notes. This volume is illustrated with reproductions of woodcuts from the Rome edition. I have relied primarily on the y-version since it is generally agreed to be the closer of the two to the Greek original. Whenever important additions or variations are supplied by the b-version, however, I have translated them Identified here as the upper part of a slingshot once belonging to a sculpted capital depicting a warrior fighting a monstrous three-headed bird resembling capitals preserved in other Burgundian churches , an iconography explained here as a metaphor of the spiritual struggles faced by monks between human frailty of the flesh and the ascetic life.
A 16th century printed text that was ascribed to Albertus Magnus. Reproduced in facsimile with an introduction by J. Although its authorship is attributed by Sander to Albertus Magnus The 'Libellus' was printed between and by Vincenzo Berruerio in the smal Piedmontese town of Mondovi, where the earliest book published in Piedmont was printed in To say that only so many copies of a rare book are known is always dangerous, but after the fullest research it appears that apart form this one which I was fortunate enough to acquire some years ago, there are but three other copies surviving: those in the National Library, Turin; the Bodleian Library, Oxford; and the one in the possession of Mr.
Philip Hofer, New York Discusses animals of the land, sea and air. Some of the myths are related to bestiary episodes, making this text useful as background reading. It was in no way a practical guide to identifying animals. It was a religious book. It can best be approached by comparing the medieval monastic technique of studying the Bible. We can apply exactly the same technique of study to the Bestiary. Just as a medieval biblical writer would be reluctant to discard any verse of the Bible, however questionable its textual authority, for fear of accidentally rejecting authentic text, so too the compilers of Bestiaries did not dare exclude any animal from the canon, however improbable, in case they discarded part of the divine revelation.
It is an interesting way of looking at a medieval text, and it tells us much about concepts of textual authority in the Middle Ages. This is a full photographic facsimile of the manuscript, approximately actual size. The gold backgrounds in the illustrations has been reproduced with a metalic ink, the colors are bright, and the text is sharp. There is a 20 page introduction by Christopher de Hamel, as well as a list of illustrations with commentary preceeding the facsimile.
The volume comes in a carefully hand produced and blind-tooled brown leather binding, a faithful replica of a typical Cambridge binding. All sheets are trimmed in accordance with the original and stitched to the contents by hand. The cover is tooled using roulettes, showing motives of the griffon, the lion and the dragon. An academic commentary volume, including a complete transcription and translation of all texts, by Christopher de Hamel, Director of the Corpus Christi Library in Cambridge, and Lucy Freeman Sandler, the great New York University expert in English book illumination, facilitates the understanding of the manuscript.
Chapter II explores the various literary and iconographic metamorphoses which the Sirens undergo in post-Homeric classical tradition. Chapter III, devoted to the Christian interpretations of Sirens, deals with patristic writings, with allegorical bestiaries, and with the iconographic traditions of medieval ecclesiastical art: it traces the gradual transformation of the Siren from birdmaid into mermaid and her emergence as a symbol of heresy.
Chapter IV builds on this context of Christian interpretation in order to analyze the Siren in Canto 19 of Dante's Purgatorio: it is contended that she represents a particular fusion of the classical Siren with the medieval notion of worldly blandishments.
Much more than documents.
Chapter V examines Platonic and neo-Platonic versions of the Sirens as heavenly muses in reference to the poetry of Petrarch, Bembo, and Aretino. Chapter VI in turn discusses Boccaccio's treatment of the Siren myth in his Genealogia and its influence on Renaissance mythography. Also included are the following appendices: a brief survey of Siren scholarship in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, an excursion into the motif of Sirens in folklore, and a representative sampling of Siren iconography from Greek antiquity through the Renaissance.
Bestiaries, Romanesque Sculpture, Animals in art. During that time a rich assortment of semihuman creatures were described by explorers and travelers, whose accounts were probably based largely on malformed individuals and the desire to enhance their own fame at home. No part of the human body was neglected; each was conceived as having elaborate variations. There were, for example, people with tiny heads, with gigantic headws, with pointed heads, with no heads, with detachable heads, with dog heads, with horse heads, with pig snouts and with bird beaks.
In the absence of knowledge of farawy places and about the limits of human variation men populated them with creatures of their imagination. An extensive discussion of bestiary and other animal subjects found in sculpture and other stone works in medieval French architechure. Thoroughly illustrated with high-quality photographs of sculptural details from buildings all over France. Contents: La bestiaire des sceaux de l'ancien Orient, by P Amiet.
Les bovins, by M Vollenweider. Here Be Dragons is a lavishly illustrated compendium of the marvelous menagerie of imaginary animals that humans have conjured up over the ages. Ariane and Christian Delacampagne take us on a visually and intellectually riveting journey through five thousand years of art, examining the symbolic meanings of such creatures and what they say about the unconscious life of the human mind. In the first book to explore this subject with such cross-cultural and chronological range, the Delacampagnes identify five basic structures unicorn, human-headed animal, animal-headed human, winged quadruped, and dragon whose stories they relate from prehistory to the present day.
They also provide fascinating sociological and psychoanalytical insight into the processes through which artists have created these astonishing animals and how they have been transmitted from culture to culture. A critical edition of the French Mandeville's Travels. The introduction includes biographical information on Mandeville, and details on the manuscripts used in the edition and on the versions of the text. Presents photographs of illuminations from a manuscript of the Physiologus destroyed formerly in the Evangelical School of Smyrna MS B.
The manuscript was probably a Palaeologan copy of an 11th c. Josef Strzygowski's early research efforts on the manuscript at the turn of the century are also discussed, and his list of all the miniatures is reproduced here. Mary in Maastricht. The capitals portray Biblical scenes, animals, monsters, birds, naked and scantily-clad humans, and humans fighting and being attacked by animals.
Explores potential sources such as the A. Physiologus and derivative bestiaries. Speculates on meanings and questions such as whether the capitals can be read as a coherent series. Compares the cycle with the work by the same atelier in the church of St. Servatius in Maastricht and dates them to c.
Considers the place of the Second Crusade. Concludes that the capitals were created in an environment that embraced the ideas of St. Bernard of Clairvaux. A survey of fantastic natural history from the eighth to the sixteenth century.
Includes a long section on the Tresor of Brunetto Latini and the age of Dante, as well as sections on Isidore of Seville, science under Charlemagne, marvels, animals of the Talmud, Marco Polo, and the New World of the sixteenth century. Appendixes provide a French translation of the letter of Prester John, and an account of the El Dorado legend. There is also an extensive annotated bibliography to , organized by subject.
A general introduction to medieval heraldry, focusing on the use of animals. Includes sections on human monsters, lions and kindred creatures, fabulous beasts, eagles and fabulous birds, dragons and fabulous reptiles. The main sections are: Heralds and Armory an introduction to the topic ; The Literature of Heraldry medieval texts dealing with heraldry ; The Heraldic Imagination in Action the animals used in heraldry and their symbolic meaning. There are many bestiary references, and a large number of good illustrations. There is also a glossary of heraldic terms and a list of primary medieval heraldic treatises.
Includes data on the copies of the Liber Floridus and related manuscripts, and a survey of the sources. A codicological study of manuscript Universiteitsbibliotheek Gent MS Tevoren werden twee volledige handschriften en fragmenten van twee handschriften ontdekt : omstreeks het Comburgse handschrift of hs. F Schloss Dyck bij Neuss en in de Rotterdamse fragmenten of hs. G Rotterdam, Gemeentebibliotheek, 96 B 5.
De nieuwe fragmenten zullen we de Brusselse fragmenten of hs. Volledigheidshalve vermelden we de twee handschriften van Reynaerts historie of Reynaert II , die zoals bekend uit een bewerking van Reynaert I vs. B Brussel, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, C 's-Gravenhage, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 75 B 7 dat slechts vs. Published on the occasion of the exhibit "Conservazione e metamorfosi," held in Reggio Emilia at the Civici musei L.
Spallanzani Jan. Old English period; Physiologus and its relationship to the bestiary; treatment of animal lore; influence on Christian iconography. The manuscript belongs to the so-called Second Family and the article establishes the proper genealogical place of the manuscript among the other representatives of this group. The majority of the bestiaries in this family are of English origin, so the discovery of a French manuscript helps demonstrate that the bestiary tradition was alive on the continent at this period.
The article includes an up-to-date list of other new bestiaries discovered by the author. In general, the decorative scheme relates the early lore of bestiaries particularly the Physiologus to Christian morality. Specifically, animals such as the dog and stag appear in their capacities both to make and enjoy music and to attract Christian faith. Music as a venereal talisman appears in the scene of falconers and cupid, whereas the diabolical dragon beneath them indicates the pitfalls of adultery.
The mandora therefore becomes a miniature sermon against faithlessness in marriage, pleading for pure Christian love as opposed to carnal lust. The two Icelandic fragments, conventionally called Physiologus A and Physiologus B, are independent of each other and seem to have been written in about Scholars agree in thinking that their source is to be found in the Latin version conventionally called Versio B.
Although this statement is true in a general sense, it acts as a screen which hides a much more complex reality: textual and iconographic features give evidence of their derivation from models whose origins lie in England. Moreover the analysis of the chapters dealing with onocentaurs highlights that the two Icelandic Physiologi, in which tradition and innovation mingle profoundly with each other, are original manipulations of the ancient matter. Focuses in particular on this image in the prose romance Chevalier du Papegau, arguing that the skin is where the transition between the two characters of this mythical beast is most clearly revealed; providing also general cultural and historical context on the centaur as man-beast hybrid.
Birds and beasts mentioned in the lyrics of the Greek Anthology, under the headings of mammals, birds, reptiles and batrachians, sea-beasts, and creeping things. That must be because the writers happened to be poets, who view life from more or less the same angle through all the ages; poets, whose observations of natural phenomena were casual and unsystematic, whose interpretation of such things shifts more slowly than that of the scientists, and shifts, when it does so, along a plane different from theirs.
Like our own poets, they are quite ready to introduce the animal creation into their pages, and in so doing they often register what seem to be the most irrelevant and wearisome trivialities But these trivialities, I think, have their significance. That is why the reader of the following pages cannot but notice that I have chronicled them one after the other with pedantic deliberation, to the verge of tediousness and possibly beyond it. My reason is this : it is trivialities, mere trivialities, which betray them in the long run; nothing but the cumulative weight of trifles can turn the scale and demonstrate the particular detail wherein our point of view has come to change from that of their time.
For we find no Natural History, properly speaking, in the Greek Anthology; what its authors say about animals constitutes a human rather than a scientific document; it is a minute but clearly demarcated province in the history of feeling Originally published in Florence privately printed in Also published by J. Cape and H. Smith, New York, A basic description of the manuscript, with a listing of the beasts along with some commentary and a partial transcription.
This article is a thorough exploration of the ant-lion, tracing the roots of the legend to Greek and Biblical sources, with reference to the bestiaries, the Physiologus , Isidore of Seville's Etymologies , Gregory's Moralia in Job , the Septuagint, the Romance of Alexander, and other sources. Druce also discusses the legends of the ant including the Indian or Ethiopian gold-digging ant , and comments on the "real" ant-lion, Palpares libelluloides. Bestiaries form the source for animal figures shown in wood-carving. Compare with Morgan Library, MS.
Contents of MSS are listed with descriptions of representations and folio references. As follows:. BL Harl. Canterbury Cathedral Library D.
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Brussels, Bibl. Octavo notebooks. All in a red box. This article is nominally about the sculpture of Alne Church, but in fact is an extensive exploration of the caladrius legend. Druce uses the sculpture as the starting pointing, then traces the history of the caladrius legend back though the Middle Ages and into Antiquity. The sources and history of the legend occupy the bulk of the article, which also includes discussions of the treatment of the caladrius in several medieval manuscripts. A wooden chest of thirteenth-century date decorated with religious scenes, but also with unicorns, fox with crozier preaching to geese, leopards, stag chased by hound, and owl teased by birds - all are Bestiary subjects and parallels are given.
A wide-ranging look at the elephant in medieval manuscripts, ecclesiatical carvings, and heraldry. Druce also discusses the legends of the dragon and the mandrake as they relate to that of the elephant. Includes over 30 black and white images. It offers some attractive features, and an important Sermo or religious interpretation is founded upon it.
The legend of the elephant also brings us into direct connexion with the legends of the serpent called Draco and the mandrake. Further, it is our object to show how the elephant was treated in illuminated manuscripts and ecclesiastical and heraldic art in the middle ages. Discussion of the choice of subjects on a twelfth-century circular lead font: selected from the Labours of the Month and the Signs of the Zodiac, with beasts based on Livre de Creatures.
It is the subject of a moralized tale. Its legend is a simple one, but not without its picturesque side, and is noteworthy for the little variation that we find in its principal features. It is, however, quite otherwise in respect to the way in which the Serra is illustrated, for it would be hard to find any creature treated by artists in more diverse fashion, and it is frankly evident that none of them knew what it was like, if indeed it was to be seen in the flesh at all. This article is a wide-ranging discussion of the beast called yale, eale or jall, both in bestiary and heraldic contexts.
After a description of several uses of yale images in heraldic contexts on carvings and seals, Druce gives a history of the yale in bestiary manuscripts. Illustrations from several manuscripts are analysed in detail. Druce compares the heraldic images with those in manuscripts, and discusses the origin of the yale legend in Pliny's Natural History. An attempt is then made to identify the yale with a real beast; Druce concludes that such an identification is not possible. Next Druce looks at a variant of the yale, found in French manuscripts, and called the centicore.
Finally, the use of the antelope in manuscripts and heraldry is compared to that of the yale; as part of this comparison Druce provides an extensive history of the antelope legend.
Discusses and illustrates the fourteenth-century designs of the misericords and the 'bench-elbows', showing that the choice of subject is taken from the Bestiary and from fabulous stories. Parallels are given to other contemporary English church woodwork. A discussion of the bestiary symbolism found in the arms of the Sybill family in a house at Little Mote, Eynsford. The arms include a tiger looking into a mirror; Druce explains the bestiary tale of the tiger and her cubs. Six black and white illustrations of the tale from a carving in the house and from bestiary manuscripts.
An extensive survey of the use of images of the crocodile in medieval architectural decoration and in manuscript illustration, with a discussion of the symbolism involved. That it was frequently represented in some form or other seems more than likely from the fact that it can be shown by reference to medieval manuscripts to have been the subject of an extensive symbolism. The object of the present paper is to endeavour to show what that symbolism was, and in what circumstances and form we should expect to find the crocodile in church architecture. A discussion of a carved figure on a Norman stone baptismal font in the village of Thames Ditton, south west of London.
Druce concludes that the goat-like animal depicted is probably intended to be the ibex. Charming, quirky, pieces on pelican symbolism and its expression in British, European and some American churches. Chapter One presents the twofold purpose of this study. On one hand, it attempts to distinguish the qualities unique to the Old English Physiologus in the context of its genre as well as to connect aspects of the work to Exeter Book themes and motifs.
On the other hand, it seeks also to demonstrate the stylistic beauty of the poem as it reflects Wisdom as Christ and His Spirit. Chapter Two examines 'Panther' as a skillfully-designed fitt in two parts: the panther's tale and its significatio. Infused with images of Wisdom, the fitt celebrates typologically the panther as Christ. Through the central motif of the 'sweet odor,' the poet depicts Wisdom's plan for salvation for all time and hope for eternity. Chapter Three discusses 'Whale' as emblematic of the devil and as a perversion of the panther. Similar to Folly in Old Testament wisdom literature, the whale deceives man to his damnation.
As in 'Panther,' a 'sweet odor' draws men, this time to destruction. As stylistically and contextually rich as 'Panther,' 'Whale,' through its two episodes and allegories about the seafarers and the fish, tropologically portrays the dangers of transitory sensory perceptions that result in self-deception. Chapter Four analyzes the fragment about the unspecified bird, the subject of the third fitt of the Physiologus.
The chapter focuses on the homiletic ending as a fulfillment of God's covenant hope between his people and Himself, a hope defined as wisdom by Solomon and explained as Christ by St. The redemptive covenant depends on the salvific hope in 'Panther' to overcome the devil's temptations. Chapter Five highlights the drypoint drawings in the left margin of the opening to Physiologus. Discussed from the perspective of Physiologus themes, the two initial P's and the two hands in liturgical gestures present a graphic and enigmatic complement to the 'Panther' fitt. A lecture presented by Umberto Eco on December 10, Includes several references to the Bestiary.